• 1.

    Friedrichs B, Tichelli A, Bacigalupo A, Russell NH, Ruutu T, Shapira MY, et al. Long-term outcome and late effects in patients transplantedwith mobilised blood or bone marrow: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:331–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 2.

    Anasetti C, Logan BR, Lee SJ, Waller EK, Weisdorf DJ, Wingard JR, et al. Peripheral-blood stem cells versus bone marrow from unrelated donors. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1487–96.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 3.

    Nagafuji K, Matsuo K, Teshima T, Mori S, Sakamaki H, Hidaka M, et al. Peripheral blood stem cell versus bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors in patients with leukemia: a propensity score-based comparison from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation registry. Int J Hematol. 2010;91:855–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Holtan SG, DeFor TE, Lazaryan A, Bejanyan N, Arora M, Brunstein CG, et al. Composite end point of graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood. 2015;125:1333–8.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Solh M, Zhang X, Connor K, Brown S, Solomon SR, Morris LE, et al. Factors predicting graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: multivariable analysis from a single center. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2016;22:1403–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • 6.

    Zheng CC, Zhu XY, Tang BL, Zhang XH, Zhang L, Geng LQ, et al. Clinical separation of cGvHD and GvL and better GvHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS) after unrelated cord blood transplantation for AML. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2016;52:88–94 [Epub ahead of print].

    Google Scholar 

  • 7.

    Inamoto Y, Kimura F, Kanda J, Sugita J, Ikegame K, Nakasone H, et al. Comparison of graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival according to a variety of graft sources: antithymocyte globulin and single cord blood provide favorable outcomes in some subgroups. Haematologica. 2016;101:1592–602.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 8.

    Bacigalupo A, Lamparelli T, Bruzzi P, Guidi S, Alessandrino PE, di Bartolomeo P, et al. Antithymocyte globulin for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in transplants from unrelated donors: 2 randomized studies from Gruppo Italiano Trapianti Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Blood. 2001;98:2942–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Bacigalupo A, Lamparelli T, Barisione G, Bruzzi P, Guidi S, Alessandrino PE, et al. Thymoglobulin prevents chronic graft-versus-host disease, chronic lung dysfunction, and late transplant-related mortality: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial in patients undergoing unrelated donor transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2006;12:560–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Finke J, Bethge WA, Schmoor C, Ottinger HD, Stelljes M, Zander AR, et al. Standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin in haematopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors: a randomised, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:855–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Socié G, Schmoor C, Bethge WA, Ottinger HD, Stelljes M, Zander AR, et al. Chronic graft-versus-host disease: long-term results from a randomized trial on graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin ATG-Fresenius. Blood. 2011;117:6375–82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Kröger N, Solano C, Wolschke C, Bandini G, Patriarca F, Pini M, et al. Antilymphocyte globulin for prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease. N. Engl J Med. 2016;374:43–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Walker I, Panzarella T, Couban S, Couture F, Devins G, Elemary M, et al. Pretreatment with anti-thymocyte globulin versus no anti-thymocyte globulin in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing haemopoietic cell transplantation from unrelated donors: a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17:164–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    Soiffer RJ, Kim HT, McGuirk J, Horwitz ME, Johnston L, Patnaik MM, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, phase III clinical trial of anti-t-lymphocyte globulin to assess impact on chronic graft-versus-host disease-free survival in patients undergoing HLA-matched unrelated myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:4003–11.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    Yu ZP, Ding JH, Wu F, Liu J, Wang J, Cheng J, et al. Quality of life of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with antihuman thymocyte globulin. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2012;18:593–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    Wang Y, Fu HX, Liu DH, Xu LP, Zhang XH, Chang YJ, et al. Influence of two different doses of antithymocyte globulin in patients with standard-risk disease following haploidentical transplantation: a randomized trial. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2014;49:426–33.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Basara N, Baurmann H, Kolbe K, Yaman A, Labopin M, Burchardt A, et al. Antithymocyte globulin for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: results from the multicenter German cooperative study group. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2005;35:1011–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Deeg HJ, Storer BE, Boeckh M, Martin PJ, McCune JS, Myerson D, et al. Reduced incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease with the addition of thymoglobulin to a targeted busulfan/cyclophosphamide regimen. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2006;12:573–84.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    Bredeson CN, Zhang MJ, Agovi MA, Bacigalupo A, Bahlis NJ, Ballen K, et al. Outcomes following HSCT using fludarabine, busulfan, and thymoglobulin: a matched comparison to allogeneic transplants conditioned with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2008;14:993–1003.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Call SK, Kasow KA, Barfield R, Madden R, Leung W, Horwitz E, et al. Total and active rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG;Thymoglobulin) pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients undergoing unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2009;15:274–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Kim HJ, Min WS, Cho BS, Eom KS, Kim YJ, Min CK, et al. Successful prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease using low-dose antithymocyte globulin after mismatched, unrelated, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2009;15:704–17.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 22.

    Busca A, Locatelli F, Flonta SE, Ciccone G, Baldi I, D’Ardia S, et al. In vivo T-cell depletion with pretransplant low-dose antithymocyte globulin is associated with reduced transplant-related mortality and improved clinical outcome in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated and partially matched related donors. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:214–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Bashir Q, Munsell MF, Giralt S, de Padua Silva L, Sharma M, Couriel D, et al. Randomized phase II trial comparing two dose levels of thymoglobulin in patients undergoing unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplant. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:915–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Al-Kadhimi Z, Gul Z, Rodriguez R, Chen W, Smith D, Mitchell A, et al. Anti-thymocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), tacrolimus, and sirolimus as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2012;18:1734–44.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 25.

    Baron F, Mohty M, Blaise D, Socié G, Labopin M, Esteve J, et al. Anti-thymocyte globulin as graft-versus-host disease prevention in the setting of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Haematologica. 2017;102:224–34.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Bleakley M, Heimfeld S, Loeb KR, Jones LA, Chaney C, Seropian S, et al. Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell-depleted stem cell grafts. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2677–89.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Chawla S, Dharmani-Khan P, Liu Y, Prokopishyn N, Amlish Munir M, Griffiths C, et al. High serum level of antithymocyte globulin immediately before graft infusion is associated with a low likelihood of chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2014;20:1156–62.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 28.

    Shiratori S, Kosugi-Kanaya M, Hayase E, Okada K, Goto H, Sugita J, et al. T-cell depletion effects of low-dose antithymocyte globulin for GVHD prophylaxis in HLA-matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2018;46:21–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, Fenaux P, Morel P, Sanz G, et al. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 1997;89:2079–88.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Malcovati L, Germing U, Kuendgen A, Della Porta MG, Pascutto C, Invernizzi R, et al. Time-dependent prognostic scoring system for predicting survival and leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3503–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Armand P, Kim HT, Logan BR, Wang Z, Alyea EP, Kalaycio ME, et al. Validation and refinement of the Disease Risk Index for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2014;123:3664–71.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Przepiorka D, Weisdorf D, Martin P, Klingemann HG, Beatty P, Hows J, et al. 1994 consensus conference on acute GVHD grading. Bone Marrow Transpl. 1995;15:825–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 33.

    Filipovich AH, Weisdorf D, Pavletic S, Socie G, Wingard JR, Lee SJ, et al. National Institutes of Health consensus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: I. Diagnosis and staging working group report. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2005;11:945–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Gooley TA, Leisenring W, Crowley J, Storer BE. Estimation of failure probabilities in the presence of competing risks: new representations of old estimators. Stat Med. 1999;18:695–706.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    Gray RJ. A class of K-sample tests for comparing the cumulative incidence of a competing risk. Ann Stat. 1988;16:1141–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • 36.

    Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ (Clin Res ed). 2003;327:557–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Kanda Y. Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR’ for medical statistics. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2013;48:452–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 38.

    Konuma T, Tsukada N, Kanda J, Uchida N, Ohno Y, Miyakoshi S, et al. Comparison of transplant outcomes from matched sibling bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell and unrelated cord blood in patients 50 years or older. Am J Hematol. 2016;91:E284–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 39.

    Kanda J, Brazauskas R, Hu ZH, Kuwatsuka Y, Nagafuji K, Kanamori H, et al. Graft-versus-host disease after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese populations. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2016;22:744–51.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 40.

    Bosch M, Dhadda M, Hoegh-Petersen M, Liu Y, Hagel LM, Podgorny P, et al. Immune reconstitution after anti-thymocyte globulin-conditioned hematopoiet ic cell transplantation. Cytotherapy. 2012;14:1258–75.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 41.

    Servais S, Menten-Dedoyart C, Beguin Y, Seidel L, Gothot A, Daulne C, et al. Impact of pre-transplant anti-t cell globulin (ATG) on immune recovery after myeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130026.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Admiraal R, Nierkens S, de Witte MA, Petersen EJ, Fleurke GJ, Verrest L, et al. Association between anti-thymocyte globulin exposure and survival outcomes in adult unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation: a multicentre, retrospective, pharmacodynamic cohort analysis. Lancet Haematol. 2017;4:e183–91.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Kennedy VE, Chen H, Savani BN, Greer J, Kassim AA, Engelhardt BG, et al. Optimizing antithymocyte globulin dosing for unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation based on recipient absolute lymphocyte count. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2018;24:150–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 44.

    Ito A, Kitano S, Tajima K, Kim Y, Tanaka T, Inamoto Y, et al. Impact of low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin on immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2020;111:120–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    Kuriyama K, Fuji S, Inamoto Y, Tajima K, Tanaka T, Inoue Y, et al. Impact of low-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2016;103:453–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Imataki O, Matsumoto K, Uemura M. Low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin reduce severe acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017;143:709–15.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 47.

    Shichijo T, Fuji S, Tajima K, Kubo H, Nozaki K, Honda T, et al. Beneficial impact of low-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: focusing on difference between stem cell sources. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2018;53:634–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 48.

    Bryant A, Mallick R, Huebsch L, Allan D, Atkins H, Anstee G, et al. Low-dose antithymocyte globulin for graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis in matched unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2017;23:2096–101.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 49.

    Tandra A, Covut F, Cooper B, Creger R, Brister L, McQuigg B, et al. Low dose anti-thymocyte globulin reduces chronic graft-versus-host disease incidence rates after matched unrelated donor transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma. 2018;59:1644–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 50.

    Mountjoy L, Jain T, Kunze KL, Khera N, Sproat LZ, Jennifer W, et al. Clinical outcomes with low dose anti-thymocyte globulin in patients undergoing matched unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma. 2020;1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1747067.

  • Source