Unal, M., Creecy, A. & Nyman, J. S. The Role of Matrix Composition in the Mechanical Behavior of Bone. Current Osteoporosis Reports 16, 205–215, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0433-0 (2018).
McCalden, R. W., McGeough, J. A. & Barker, M. B. Age-related changes in the tensile properties of cortical bone. The relative importance of changes in porosity, mineralization, and microstructure. JBJS 75, 1193–1205 (1993).
Wang, X., Shen, X., Li, X. & Agrawal, C. M. Age-related changes in the collagen network and toughness of bone. Bone 31, 1–7 (2002).
Currey, J. D., Brear, K. & Zioupos, P. The effects of ageing and changes in mineral content in degrading the toughness of human femora. Journal of biomechanics 29, 257–260 (1996).
Yerramshetty, J. S. & Akkus, O. The associations between mineral crystallinity and the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Bone 42, 476–482 (2008).
Wang, X. et al. Effect of collagen denaturation on the toughness of bone. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 371, 228–239 (2000).
Granke, M., Makowski, A. J., Uppuganti, S., Does, M. D. & Nyman, J. S. Identifying novel clinical surrogates to assess human bone fracture toughness. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30, 1290–1300 (2015).
Dalén, N., Hellström, L.-G. & Jacobson, B. Bone mineral content and mechanical strength of the femoral neck. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 47, 503–508 (1976).
Mayhew, P. M. et al. Relation between age, femoral neck cortical stability, and hip fracture risk. The Lancet 366, 129–135 (2005).
Singer, K., Edmondston, S., Day, R., Breidahl, P. & Price, R. Prediction of thoracic and lumbar vertebral body compressive strength: correlations with bone mineral density and vertebral region. Bone 17, 167–174 (1995).
Vesterby, A. et al. Biologically meaningful determinants of the in vitro strength of lumbar vertebrae. Bone 12, 219–224 (1991).
Manhard, M. K., Nyman, J. S. & Does, M. D. Advances in imaging approaches to fracture risk evaluation. Translational Research 181, 1–14 (2017).
Johannesdottir, F., Allaire, B. & Bouxsein, M. L. Fracture Prediction by Computed Tomography and Finite Element Analysis: Current and Future Perspectives. Current osteoporosis reports, 1–12 (2018).
Kanis, J. A., McCloskey, E., Johansson, H., Oden, A. & Leslie, W. D. FRAX® with and without bone mineral density. Calcified Tissue Int 90, 1–13 (2012).
Donnelly, E. Methods for assessing bone quality: a review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2128–2138 (2011).
Mandair, G. S. & Morris, M. D. Contributions of Raman spectroscopy to the understanding of bone strength. BoneKEy Reports 4 (2015).
Unal, M., Yang, S. & Akkus, O. Molecular spectroscopic identification of the water compartments in bone. Bone 67, 228–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2014.07.021 (2014).
Unal, M. & Akkus, O. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water’s associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone. Bone 81, 315–326, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.07.024 (2015).
Buckley, K. et al. Towards the in vivo prediction of fragility fractures with Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 46, 610–618 (2015).
Diez-Perez, A. et al. Recommendations for a standard procedure to assess cortical bone at the tissue-level in vivo using impact microindentation. Bone reports 5, 181–185 (2016).
Manhard, M. K. et al. MRI-derived bound and pore water concentrations as predictors of fracture resistance. Bone 87, 1–10 (2016).
Paschalis, E., Gamsjaeger, S. & Klaushofer, K. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques to assess bone quality. Osteoporosis Int, 1–17 (2017).
Paschalis, E. et al. Spectroscopic Characterization of Collagen Cross‐Links in Bone. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, 1821–1828 (2001).
Unal, M., Jung, H. & Akkus, O. Novel Raman Spectroscopic Biomarkers Indicate That Postyield Damage Denatures Bone’s Collagen. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1015–1025, https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2768 (2016).
Morris, M. D. & Mandair, G. S. Raman assessment of bone quality. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
Akkus, O., Adar, F. & Schaffler, M. B. Age-related changes in physicochemical properties of mineral crystals are related to impaired mechanical function of cortical bone. Bone 34, 443–453, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2003.11.003 (2004).
Bi, X. et al. Raman and mechanical properties correlate at whole bone-and tissue-levels in a genetic mouse model. Journal of biomechanics 44, 297–303 (2011).
Makowski, A. J. et al. Applying Full Spectrum Analysis to a Raman Spectroscopic Assessment of Fracture Toughness of Human Cortical Bone. Applied spectroscopy 71, 2385–2394, https://doi.org/10.1177/0003702817718149 (2017).
Matousek, P. et al. Noninvasive Raman spectroscopy of human tissue in vivo. Applied spectroscopy 60, 758–763 (2006).
Draper, E. R. et al. Novel Assessment of Bone Using Time‐Resolved Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20, 1968–1972 (2005).
Schulmerich, M. V. et al. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy of murine bone in vivo. Applied spectroscopy 63, 286–295 (2009).
Okagbare, P. I., Morris, M. D., Begun, D., Goldstein, S. A. & Tecklenburg, M. Noninvasive Raman spectroscopy of rat tibiae: approach to in vivo assessment of bone quality. Journal of biomedical optics 17, 090502 (2012).
Maher, J. R., Inzana, J. A., Awad, H. A. & Berger, A. J. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age-and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones. Journal of biomedical optics 18, 077001 (2013).
Demers, J.-L. H., Esmonde-White, F. W., Esmonde-White, K. A., Morris, M. D. & Pogue, B. W. Next-generation Raman tomography instrument for non-invasive in vivo bone imaging. Biomedical optics express 6, 793–806 (2015).
Buckley, K. et al. Measurement of abnormal bone composition in vivo using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy. IBMS BoneKEy 11, https://doi.org/10.1038/bonekey.2014.97 (2014).
Nyman, J. S., Granke, M., Singleton, R. C. & Pharr, G. M. Tissue-level mechanical properties of bone contributing to fracture risk. Current osteoporosis reports 14, 138–150 (2016).
Launey, M. E., Buehler, M. J. & Ritchie, R. O. On the Mechanistic Origins of Toughness in Bone. Annual Review of Materials Research 40, 25–53, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-matsci-070909-104427 (2010).
Fritsch, A., Hellmich, C. & Dormieux, L. Ductile sliding between mineral crystals followed by rupture of collagen crosslinks: experimentally supported micromechanical explanation of bone strength. Journal of theoretical biology 260, 230–252 (2009).
Gupta, H. et al. Intrafibrillar plasticity through mineral/collagen sliding is the dominant mechanism for the extreme toughness of antler bone. Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials 28, 366–382 (2013).
Zimmermann, E. A. et al. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 14416–14421 (2011).
Diab, T. & Vashishth, D. Effects of damage morphology on cortical bone fragility. Bone 37, 96–102 (2005).
Nalla, R. K., Kruzic, J. J., Kinney, J. H. & Ritchie, R. O. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in human cortical bone. Biomaterials 26, 217–231 (2005).
Koester, K. J., Ager Iii, J. & Ritchie, R. The true toughness of human cortical bone measured with realistically short cracks. Nature materials 7, 672 (2008).
Peterlik, H., Roschger, P., Klaushofer, K. & Fratzl, P. From brittle to ductile fracture of bone. Nature materials 5, 52 (2006).
Flanagan, C. D., Unal, M., Akkus, O. & Rimnac, C. M. Raman spectral markers of collagen denaturation and hydration in human cortical bone tissue are affected by radiation sterilization and high cycle fatigue damage. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 75, 314–321, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.07.016 (2017).
McNerny, E., Gong, B., Morris, M. D. & Kohn, D. H. Bone Fracture Toughness and Strength Correlate with Collagen Cross‐Link Maturity in a Dose‐Controlled Lathyrism Mouse Model. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30, 455–464 (2015).
Ager, J. W., Nalla, R. K., Breeden, K. L. & Ritchie, R. O. Deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of aging on human cortical bone. Journal of biomedical optics 10, 034012–0340128 (2005).
Buckley, K., Matousek, P., Parker, A. W. & Goodship, A. E. Raman spectroscopy reveals differences in collagen secondary structure which relate to the levels of mineralisation in bones that have evolved for different functions. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43, 1237–1243 (2012).
Gong, B., Oest, M. E., Mann, K. A., Damron, T. A. & Morris, M. D. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates prolonged alteration of bone chemical composition following extremity localized irradiation. Bone 57, 252–258 (2013).
Barth, H. D. et al. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Biomaterials 32, 8892–8904 (2011).
Creecy, A. et al. Low bone toughness in the TallyHO model of juvenile type 2 diabetes does not worsen with age. Bone 110, 204–214, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.005 (2018).
Unal, M. et al. Assessing Glycation-mediated Changes in Human Cortical Bone with Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Biophotonics Accepted Author Manuscript, https://doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201700352 (2018).
Makowski, A. J., Patil, C. A., Mahadevan-Jansen, A. & Nyman, J. S. Polarization control of Raman spectroscopy optimizes the assessment of bone tissue. Journal of biomedical optics 18, 055005 (2013).
Pence, I. & Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy. Chemical Society Reviews 45, 1958–1979 (2016).
Burr, D. The contribution of the organic matrix to bone’s material properties. Bone 31, 8–11 (2002).
Zioupos, P. Ageing human bone: factors affecting its biomechanical properties and the role of collagen. Journal of Biomaterials Applications 15, 187–229 (2001).
Granke, M., Makowski, A. J., Uppuganti, S. & Nyman, J. S. Prevalent role of porosity and osteonal area over mineralization heterogeneity in the fracture toughness of human cortical bone. Journal of biomechanics 49, 2748–2755 (2016).
Willett, T. L., Dapaah, D. Y., Uppuganti, S., Granke, M. & Nyman, J. S. Bone collagen network integrity and transverse fracture toughness of human cortical bone. Bone (2018).
Katsamenis, O. L., Jenkins, T. & Thurner, P. J. Toughness and damage susceptibility in human cortical bone is proportional to mechanical inhomogeneity at the osteonal-level. Bone 76, 158–168 (2015).
Hammond, M. A., Gallant, M. A., Burr, D. B. & Wallace, J. M. Nanoscale changes in collagen are reflected in physical and mechanical properties of bone at the microscale in diabetic rats. Bone 60, 26–32 (2014).